# Fluid Mechanics

In previous posts we have already discussed major losseses in pipes, Hagen Poiseuille & Darcy Weisbach equation to calculate head loss. For minor losses there are direct formulas that need to be remembered Minor Loss 1. Loss due to sudden Enlargement   2. Loss due to sudden Conraction v2 is the velocity in the contracted …

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## Laminar and Turbulent Flow

As we have already discussed in earlier topics that whenever a fluid passes over a surface, the surface resists its motion and apply a force to oppose the motion in the similar way when fluid flow a resisting force known as viscous force act. When fluid moves over a surface, each layer of  fluid slides …

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## Boundary Layer

Let’s assume a fluid is flowing over a solid body.When a real fluid flows over a solid body, the velocity of fluid at the boundary will be zero. As we move away from boundary in perpendicular direction velocity increases to the free stream velocity i.e. there will be velocity gradient. As we can see in …

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## Flow of Viscous Fluid Through Circular Pipe

When fluid flows through pipes there are frictional losses. These losses are due to the resistance due to which some energy of the fluid is lost.  There are two types of energy loss: Minor loss: due to friction Major loss: due to sudden expansion or contraction or bend in the pipe. Major loss It can …

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## Force exerted by Fluid (Kinematics and Dynamics of Flow Part-6)

Here in this topic we will be discussing two things 1. Force exerted by fluid on Bend 2. Discharge through large Orifice 1. Force Exerted by fluid on Bend When the fluid is passing through a bend there will be some forces that will be applied by the bend. Let’s found out the expression. In …

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## Bernoulli’s Equation (Kinematics and Dynamics of Flow Part-5)

This equation is based on laws of conservation of energy. At the time of applying equation few assumptions are taken as follows  1. Fluid is steady and irrotational 2. Fluid is ideal ( non-viscous) 3. Fluid is incompressible   Bernoulli’s equation can b obtained by Euler’s equation as follows   As during deriving Bernoulli’s equation, …

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## Vortex Flow (Kinematics and Dynamics of Flow Part-4)

Rotating mass of fluid is known as vortex flow. Vortex flow is of two types  1. Forced vortex flow 2. Free vortex flow Forced Vortex Flow When there is external torque is applied to the flow to rotate the flow then it is called as a forced vortex flow. ω = constant or v/r = …

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## Stream & Velocity Potential Function (Kinematics and Dynamics of Flow Part-3)

Stream Function: A stream function is an arbitrary function whose derivatives give velocity components of a particular flow situation. The partial derivative of stream function with respect to any direction gives the velocity component at right angles to that direction. It is denoted by ψ According to the above definition Continuity Equation for flow is given …

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## Continuity Equation (Kinematics and Dynamics of Flow Part-2)

When a fluid is moving, it moves such like that its mass remains conserved. Let us take a stream through which fluid is flowing. According to continuity equation, mass flow rate remains constant For section A-A’ mass is given by Similarly for Section B-B’  By contunity equation mass flow rate at both sections should be …

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## Type of Flow (Kinematics and Dynamics of Flow Part-1)

Flow is further divider into five categories: Uniform & Non-uniform Flow Steady & Unsteady Flow Rotaional & Irrotational Flow Laminar & Turbulent Flow Compressible & Incompressible Flow Uniform Flow If velocity of flow at any given time does not change with respect to distance. Non-Uniform Flow If velocity of flow at any given time changes …

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