#### In previous posts we have already discussed major losseses in pipes, Hagen Poiseuille & Darcy Weisbach equation to calculate head loss.

##### For minor losses there are direct formulas that need to be remembered

**Minor Loss**

#### 1. Loss due to sudden Enlargement

#### 2. Loss due to sudden Conraction

**v2 is the velocity in the contracted region.**

**Case 1 & 2 are between pipe to pipe**

#### 3. Loss of head at the Entrance of Pipe

#### 4. Loss of head at the Exit of Pipe

**Case 3 & 4 are between pipe & tank**

**Now we will calculate the losses when we are combining pipes**

Pipes can be combined in series, parallel or both.

**1) Pipes in series**

Note: As the pipe are in series, the discharge through each pipe will be same

**Total Head Loss = Major loss + Minor loss**

**Major loss** = Head loss due to friction in each pipe

**Major loss **= Entrance loss + Expansion loss + Contraction loss + Exit loss

**Total Head Loss = Major loss + Minor loss**

**2) Pipes in parallel**

Note: As the pipe are in parallel, the discharge through each pipe will be sum of discharge through main pipe

Loss of head in each pipe will be same in parallel

**3)Equivalent Pipe**

A compound pipe which consists of several pipes of different lengths and diameters to be replaces by one equivalent pipe having uniform diameter and same length is known as equivalent pipe or in other words single pipe representing combination of pipes.